One thing that has always fascinated us is our mind. It is the only thing that we can be certain of existing, yet we do not know what it is. This is in contrast to things outside the mind, which we cannot be certain that they really exist – they may be just illusions – yet, apparently, we know what they are. We also have a lot of information about them. For example, we can tell that an apple is a material object – a fruit with a roughly round shape, red/green color, sweet smell, delectable taste, and a lot of nutrients. Even in the case of something that is immaterial, such as an electromagnetic wave, we can tell that it has the dual nature of being a wave and a particle, travels at the speed c regardless of measuring frames, can dislodge electrons from atoms, etc.; we can even write formulas to describe its properties. Moreover, for both the apple and the wave, we can answer the questions of why and how they occur. We cannot do such things to the mind. For the mind, what we know is only that it is non-material, can do various mental activities, such as sensing stimuli, thinking, and executing motor commands, and has some observable functional properties, such as being private, subjective, and representational [1-6]. But we do not know what its exact nature is, why it occurs, how it occurs, and why it is that, even if it is us, we cannot easily answer these questions. This theory attempts to answer these questions with scientific evidence and finds that they can be answered by analyzing the physical properties of the mind and its important phenomena: qualia and consciousness.
However, before the attempt to solve this puzzle can begin, it is to be noted that many specific terms will need to be used in the process but that some of them are ambiguous and can have varied meanings in the literature. To avoid misunderstandings, these terms will be defined what they mean in this theory at appropriate points. All the definitions such defined are intended to be the working definitions just for use in this theory. Thus, caution should be exercised if these terms are compared with the same terms, which may have different meanings, in the literature. Some of the terms will be used from the beginning and throughout the theory and will be defined in this chapter as follows.
The word “mind” has various meanings for people, depending on many things, such as their cultures, religions, personal beliefs, usage situations, and points of view (e.g., philosophical, psychiatric, neurological, and physical). As an entity, to some people, it refers to some intangible entity that exists in everything (which also includes non-living things, such as rocks, rivers, and clouds); to some other people, it refers to an immaterial entity that exists in every living thing only (which includes non-animal living things, such as trees, fungi, and bacteria, too); while to some others, it refers to an incorporeal entity that exists only in every animal (which also includes non-human animals, such as dogs, birds, fish, and even hydras and sponges); and so forth. [7-11] However, to many people, the mind refers to an immaterial entity that can sense things (such as can see, hear, and feel something) in its environment, its body, and itself; can perform mental activities, including the highest mental activities of that animal (such as [in humans] thinking, remembering things, and experiencing emotions); and can respond to the environment via its body’s parts (such as by executing motor movements, making sound, and secreting something, e.g., digestive fluid, pheromone, and poison). Because animals with a nervous system are the only entities that all the three kinds of these activities can be observed to definitely exist, the immaterial entity that can do the three kinds of activities mentioned above – the kind of mind that many people think of – can definitely exist in these animals. Because of this, this theory, which is a basic theory, will investigate the kind of mind that exists in these animals. It is possible that other kinds of mind exist in entities other than these animals, such as in rocks, trees, or sponges. However, because the three kinds of activities mentioned above cannot all be observed to clearly exist in these entities (especially the activities of the second kind – to think, to memorize, to have emotion, etc. – although they may indistinctly exist in a subtle, rudimentary, or different form), it is difficult both to confirm the existence of and to investigate these kinds of mind in these entities. Therefore, this theory, which is a basic theory, will not involve these kinds of mind. Hopefully, however, this theory will provide a basis for further investigations of all kinds of mind by a more advanced theory in the future. With these considerations, the word “mind” in this theory will be specifically defined as follows:
The mind is a non-material entity that exists in an animal with a nervous system and that functions to
– sense signals from outside its body (such as light, sound, and tactile stimuli), from its own body parts (such as proprioceptive stimuli from joints and muscles, vestibular stimuli from vestibular organs, and pain from internal organs), and from within itself (such as emotion, thought, and memory);
– operate (such as integrate, store, and retrieve) such aforementioned signals to the highest levels that that animal can, resulting in various mental processes, both conscious (such as thinking, remembering things, and experiencing emotions) and unconscious (such as unconscious control of muscle tone and balance, unconscious control of breathing, and unconscious control of sweat secretion); and
– send signals between its parts (such as between the sensory perception parts, the emotion part, and the consciousness part) and to the effectors of its body (such as striated muscles, smooth muscles, and glands) to control its own body functions and/or to respond to its environment.
An immature mind is a non-material entity that exists in an animal with a nervous system and that can function to do some, but not all, of the listed activities above because the animal is still in a developing stage, such as a fetus.
A partially-functioning mind is a non-material entity that exists in an animal with a nervous system and that can function to do some, but not all, of the listed activities above because the animal is being in a sleep stage, suppressed by a pharmacologic or toxic agent, or affected by a pathologic condition such as a cerebral concussion, brain tumor, stroke, dementing disorder, or congenital brain defect.
This theory deals with the mind as defined above. The eventual conclusions, implications, predictions, and other statements that are valid for this kind of mind are also valid for an immature mind and a partially-functioning mind, excluding the non-functioning part(s) of that mind, unless stated otherwise.
Again, as discussed previously, this theory is about the mind as specifically defined: a non-material entity that exists in an animal with a nervous system and that functions to do the listed activities. The definition does not include possibly-existing, non-material entities that function to do the listed activities but reside in
– animals that do not have a nervous system, such as sponges and Trichoplax
– other kinds of living organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and plants, or
– non-living things, such as a rock, a computer, a robot, a weather system, and the dynamic photosphere of the sun.
Thus, even if sponges, bacteria, plants, computers, robots, or some other entities above function to sense signals from the environment, operate signals, and send signals between their parts and to their effectors [12-18] and even if it is possible that there exist non-material entities in them that function to do these activities, these possibly-existing, non-material entities are not the kind of mind that will be discussed in this theory. The conclusions, implications, predictions, and other statements that are valid for the mind as specifically defined above are thus unproven to be valid or invalid for these possible entities.
D2. Mental process
A mental process is the mind’s part that functions to do a certain activity listed above (that is, to sense, operate, or send signals). It can be a conscious mental process (that is, the mind can be aware of it consciously), such as the final-stage visual perception mental process, the emotion mental process, and the volitional movement mental process, or an unconscious mental process (that is, the mind cannot be aware of it consciously), such as the early-stage visual perception mental process, the mental process that controls muscle tone and balance, and the mental process that controls breathing.
D3. Mental phenomenon
A mental phenomenon is a phenomenon that occurs in the mind. Mental phenomena that are consciously experienceable, such as a vision, a sound, an emotion, a thought, and a memory that occur in the mind, are the main mental phenomena that will be studied in this theory because they have observable and testable characteristics, such as the vision has color, brightness, shape, and velocity as its observable and testable characteristics and the sound has pitch, timbre, and loudness as its observable and testable characteristics.
D4. Neural circuit
A neural circuit is a functional group of neurons that are connected together in some specific pattern to process signals in its circuit [19-21], which is its principal function, such as to perceive visual sensation signals, to integrate various signals to form a decision, or to synthesize signals to control a motor movement. Anatomically, a neural circuit may not be just a single group of connected neurons in one location but may be a network of scattered groups of connected neurons in different areas, such as the neural circuit of consciousness [22-30]. However, to be a certain neural circuit, all the groups of the circuit must be connected and function together to perform a certain neural function.
A normal functional neural circuit is usually a complex 3-dimensional circuit and always has connections with other neural circuits and/or its sensor(s) and/or its effector(s) so that it can send/receive signals to/from them. At present, there is a lot of evidence that, under a normal condition, a certain neural circuit is not a multi-functional circuit that performs various neural functions alternately. Instead, a certain neural circuit mostly, if not exclusively, performs only a certain function , such as perceiving visual sensation, thinking, or generating emotion. These specific neural circuits reside in different, specific brain areas, such as visual perception neural circuits are in the visual cortex, thinking neural circuits are in the frontal cortex, and emotion neural circuits are in the amygdala. Currently, more than a hundred distinct functional brain areas can be identified by several methods [31-49].
D5. Neural process
A neural process is the signal-processing process of a neural circuit. It is the neural circuit’s part that performs the neural circuit’s principal function – to process signals in the circuit. (Other processes of a neural circuit perform other functions, such as metabolic, structural maintaining [of membranes, organelles, cytoskeletons, etc.], or circuit modifying [of synapses, dendrites, axons] functions.)
How a neural circuit processes signals or how a neural process functions, can be briefly summarized as follows. When a neural circuit is processing signals, there are electrical and/or electrochemical signals circulating in its circuit. Generally, each of its neurons will receive signals from thousands of other neurons at its post-synaptic junctions. Excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) or inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (IPSPs) will occur at these post-synaptic junctions and spread via the dendrites to the neuron’s soma and to the initial segment of the axon. The EPSPs and IPSPs will summate while they travel and, when reaching the initial segment of the axon, will or will not result in an action potential, depending on the summation of the EPSPs and IPSPs. (To be noted is that this summation of the EPSPs and IPSPs is the integration of the input signals that that neuron receives). If an action potential occurs, it will travel down the axon to the neuron’s pre-synaptic junctions, and the signals will be sent to thousands of other neurons through these pre-synaptic junctions [50,51]. This whole process takes place in each of millions of neurons in the circuit and results in circulation of signals among its neurons in some specific pattern depending on the circuit’s anatomy and physiology. In this manner, the signals will be processed from neuron to neuron in some specific ways while they circulate in the circuit. The end result will depend on what the function of the neural circuit is. For example, the end result can be a processed signal to be sent to other neural circuits for further processing, a final sensory perception, or a final executing signal to command its effector.
A neural process is not an instantaneous process; it takes some time to complete the process and generate the whole function. For example, it takes some time (usually in milliseconds [50,52-54]) for a visual perception neural process to create a perception of a face in the brain after receiving the visual signals [55-58].
D6. Signaling pattern (SP)
A signaling pattern (SP) is the pattern of signaling that a neural circuit sends to another neural circuit to convey its signals.
An SP is not a stationary 2-dimensional pattern (like a pattern of a static picture) but a brief, dynamic, 3-dimensional pattern because it takes some time to complete the SP, which involves complex signaling among millions of neurons in the 3-dimensional circuit. Because a neural circuit communicates its information with others via its electrical and/or electrochemical signals in the form of SPs [59-70], an SP that the neural circuit sends to another circuit must be the information that is to be sent. But for a neural circuit to be able to distinguish any particular information, the SP for that particular information must be unique – different from all others. For example, the SP for perceiving visual sensation must be different from that for perceiving auditory sensation. Also, the SP for perceiving a visual image of a letter “A” must be unique and different from the one for a letter “B” [71,72]. Stating otherwise, for neural circuits to communicate information between each other comprehensibly, a signaling pattern for each information must be unique and different from those for other information.
SPs are very important because every neural circuit sends/receives information to/from others in the form of SPs and thus affects/is affected by others by SPs.
D7. Signaling state (SS)
A signaling state (SS) is the pattern of signaling of a whole neural circuit, with signals circulating in its circuit in a certain pattern at any certain moment. Because the signals that are circulating in a certain signaling pattern at any certain moment is the information that is in the neural process at that moment, a signaling state is the information that is in the neural process at that moment. For example, after the primary visual perception neural process has received early-stage visual signals of a house from the lateral geniculate nucleus, it will have the signaling state that is the information of the early-stage visual perception of the house, and after the final visual perception neural process has finished the process of perceiving the vision of the house, it will have the signaling state that is the information of the final visual perception of the house.
In this theorem, for conciseness, the clause “that is the information of” will sometimes be replaced by “that signals”. Thus, the examples in the preceding paragraph can be stated as: after the primary visual perception neural process has received early-stage visual signals of a house from the lateral geniculate nucleus, it will have the signaling state that signals the early-stage visual perception of the house, and after the final visual perception neural process has finished the process of perceiving the vision of the house, it will have the signaling state that signals the final visual perception of the house.
Another important example is a signaling state of the consciousness neural process. When the consciousness neural process is functioning to be consciously aware of something, such as a vision of a house, it will have signals circulating in its circuits in some specific pattern. This pattern of signaling of the whole consciousness neural process, or the signaling state of the consciousness neural process, is the information of the conscious awareness of the vision of the house. Because this particular signaling state is the information of the conscious awareness of the house, the conscious awareness of the vision of the house naturally occurs in the consciousness neural process. This matter will be discussed in more details in Chapter 6.
In this theory, information is an abstract entity that describes something. For example, signals in the optic nerve are information about the visual aspect of something that one looks at – this information describes visual aspects (color, brightness, shape, dimension, velocity, etc.) of that thing, and signals in the auditory nerve are information about the auditory aspect of something that one hears – this information describes auditory aspects (pitch, timbre, loudness, etc.) of that thing. Things that have different descriptions thus have different information, and vice versa. By this definition, the information that is discussed in this theory is a kind of semantic information [73-76].
Information can be carried by several kinds of carriers such as electromagnetic waves, sound waves, mechanical forces, chemical substances, or specific molecules. In the nervous system, it is carried by electrical/electrochemical signals in neural circuits in the form of signaling patterns (which are information that is sent to other neural processes) and signaling states (which are information that is in the whole neural processes). Thus, signaling patterns and signaling states are information about something. For example, when the visual perception neural process has finished the process of perceiving a vision of a house, it will have the signaling state that is the information of the visual perception of the house and, when it communicates this information with other neural processes, it will send signaling patterns that are this information to other neural processes via its synapses.
Because an entity is identified by its information, or descriptions, entities that have different information, or different descriptions, are different. For example, because red and blue have different information (different descriptions), such as different wavelengths, different positions in the light spectrum, and different results when mixed with yellow, red and blue are different. Also, because a perception of the red color alone and a perception of the red color with a conscious experience of what the red color is like occurring have different information (different descriptions), the two perceptions are different*.
Because, in the nervous system, information is in the form of signaling patterns and signaling states, different information has different signaling patterns and different signaling states. For example, because red and blue have different information, they have different signaling states in the neural processes and different signaling patterns when sent to other neural processes. Similarly, because a perception of the red color alone and a perception of the red color with a conscious experience of what the red color is like occurring have different information, they have different signaling states in the neural processes and different signaling patterns when sent to other neural processes*.
(*These last two examples are important examples; they will help us understand the effects of consciousness and the phenomena called qualia.)
Registered and unregistered information
In this theory, the information that is processed by neural processes is called registered information. Because it is processed by neural processes, a signaling pattern and a signaling state must occur in the process to represent it. And because something in the nervous system happens because of it, registered information must have some physical effects on the nervous system – this is different from unregistered information (discussed below). For example, visual and auditory signals that enter into the nervous system are processed by neural processes, and signaling patterns and signaling states occur in the process to represent them. They thus are registered information and have effects on the nervous system.
Unregistered information, in contrast, is the information that is not processed by neural processes. Because it is not processed by neural processes, a signaling pattern, a signaling state, or anything else does not occur because of it. And because nothing in the nervous system happens because of it, unregistered information does not have any physical effects on the nervous system. For example, magnetic information and radiation information in the environment or even in our bodies cannot enter into the nervous system because we do not have sensory organs to detect these kinds of information. Therefore, they are not processed by neural processes and are unregistered information; signaling patterns, signaling states, or anything else does not occur because of them. They thus do not have effects on the nervous system (this is information-wise; physical-wise they may exert direct effects, such as radiation effects, on the nervous system, but that’s another matter). Similarly, all other kinds of information that are not processed by neural processes are unregistered information; signaling patterns, signaling states, or anything else does not occur because of them. They thus do not have effects on the nervous system.
The concepts of registered information and unregistered information are important in understanding the physical effects of mental phenomena that are read by some neural processes versus the physical effects of mental phenomena that are not read by any neural process, and they will help us investigate whether consciousness and the phenomena called qualia have physical effects or not.
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