Summary of Theorems and Predictions

Theorem I: The Mind Occurs, Exists, and Functions with the Processing Brain.

This theorem also asserts that a mental process, which is part of the mind, occurs, exists, and functions with a certain neural process, which is part of the processing brain.

Predictions

  1. A mental process (such as a visual perception, thinking, emotion, consciousness, and self-awareness) will always be found to occur, exist, and function with a certain neural process (such as a visual perception neural process, thinking neural process, emotion neural process, consciousness neural process, and self-awareness neural process) – it will never be found to occur, exist, and function without a certain neural process. Similarly, a mind will always be found to occur, exist, and function with a processing brain – it will never be found to occur, exist, and function without a processing brain. This means that, whenever and wherever there is a mental process, there must be a neural process that the mental process occurs, exists, and functions with, then and there. A neural process can be verified to be the one by experiments that manipulate the neural process. If the neural process is the one, there will be corresponding changes in the mental process when there are changes in the neural process. Similarly, this means that, whenever and wherever there is a mind, there must be a processing brain that the mind occurs, exists, and functions with, then and there. A processing brain can be verified to be the one that the mind is part of by similar processes used in identifying the neural process.
  2. Every event in a mental process (such as a visual perception change from  perceiving the red color to perceiving a house, a thinking change from thinking leisurely to solving a problem, or an emotion change from happiness to sadness) will always be found to be associated with an event in a certain neural process (such as an event in a neural process in the occipital cortex, in the frontal lobe, or in the amygdala, which can be investigated by EEG, ECoG, MEG, fMRI, etc.) – it will never be found to occur without a corresponding event in a certain neural process. Similarly, every event in a mind will always be found to be associated with an event in a processing brain – it will never be found to occur without a corresponding event in a processing brain. The neural process and the processing brain in these cases can be similarly identified by the verifying processes in 1.
  3. For a pair of a mental process and a neural process in 1., the predictions that are valid for the neural process in any event or experiment, such as that the neural process will start functioning, change, or stop functioning, will be valid for the mental process. This is similarly true for a pair of a mind and a processing brain.

Theorem II: The Mind is the Composite of All Information-processing Processes of the Brain  

When the neural process, which is a signal-processing process, is functioning, the material E/EC signals will be circulated and processed in the neural circuit. But, the fact is that, non-materially, the information that is inherent in the material E/EC signals will always be circulated and processed unitedly with the material E/EC signals too. This is because the information is the inherent, non-material counterpart of the material E/EC signals. Therefore, in the entirety, there are two processes occurring unitedly. The first one is the obvious, material process: the neural process, which is the electrical/ electrochemical signal-processing process (EPP). The other one is the inconspicuous, non-material process: the information–processing process (IPP). Both processes not only occur unitedly but also are inseparable and cannot occur independently of each other. Each is the inherent counterpart of the other: the EPP is the inherent, material counterpart of the IPP, and the IPP is the inherent, non-material (informational) counterpart of the EPP (the neural process).

Because the E/EC-signal-processing process, or the EPP, is the mechanical counterpart of the IPP, the physical characteristics of the EPP can be surrogates for the physical characteristics of the IPP. And because the mental process and the IPP are the same entity, the physical characteristics of the EPP can be taken to be surrogates for the mental process, too. Thus, it must be possible to study (measure, monitor, compare, etc.) a mental process physically (qualitatively and quantitatively) by studying the physical characteristics of the EPP, such as the number of neurons participating in the signaling process, the details of the signaling pattern, the electrical and magnetic parameters of the signaling process. For example:

– The EPP characteristics, such as the signaling pattern, can be used to identify exactly what the mental process is occurring, such as what the exact visual image, thought, or emotion is occurring in the person’s mind.

– The EPP characteristics, such as the number of neurons participating in the signaling process or the electrical or magnetic parameters of the signaling process, can be used to objectively quantify and compare mental processes, such as to quantify how intense the pain feeling, anger emotion, or alertness that the person is experiencing is and to compare who is experiencing the pain or anger more.

Also, because the EPPs and the IPPs are inseparable, complementary to each other, and cannot occur independently of each other, anything that affects the EPPs will similarly affect the IPPs. Thus, they will always be created, changed, and destroyed similarly in all events and experiments. This can be the basis for experiments about the IPPs and mental processes by using the EPPs as surrogates.

Predictions

  1. A mental process can be identified, quantified, or monitored by identifying, quantifying, or monitoring only its EPP, respectively. These actions on the EPP are both necessary and sufficient for the corresponding actions on the mental process to occur, and these actions on anything else without having the actions on the EPP will not result in the corresponding actions on the mental process.
  2. A mental process can be created, modified, tested, or destroyed by creating, modifying, testing, or destroying only its EPP, respectively. These actions on the EPP are both necessary and sufficient for the corresponding actions on the mental process to occur, and these actions on anything else without having the actions on the EPP will not result in the corresponding actions on the mental process. Experimentally, isolated actions on the EPP, without having actions on anything else, can be done by electrical stimulations, magnetic stimulations, and pharmacologic agents that have effects on only the E/EC signal transmissions of the neural process (because the EPP consists of the E/EC signal transmissions among neurons of the neural process).
  3. In any event or experiment, all predictions that are valid for the EPP, such as that the EPP will occur, change, or disappear, will be identically valid for the IPP, which is the mental process of that EPP, that is, the changes that occur in the EPP and those that occur in the IPP, the mental process of that EPP, will be identical in all aspects (quality, quantity, temporal pattern, etc.). For example, if the EPP changes its function abruptly from processing visual signals of the static, faint, homogenous red color to processing visual signals of the dynamic, vivid, complex movie, the changes in the IPP, the mental process of that EPP, will be identical in all aspects, such as identical changes from homogeneous color to complex movie (quality), from faint to vivid (quantity), and abruptly from static to dynamic (temporal pattern).

Theorem III: Qualia are Physical Phenomena

Predictions

  1. Qualia’s occurrences, places of occurrences, existence, capacities, details, structure, changes, and interactions are predictable with physical laws.
  2. A quale (such as a visual image of a house, a thought of a situation, or an emotion of happiness) will always be found to occur with a certain neural process (such as a visual perception neural process, a thinking neural process, or an emotion neural process) – it will never be found to occur without a certain neural process. This means that, whenever and wherever there is a quale, there must be a neural process that the quale is completely associated with, then and there. A neural process can be verified to be the one that the quale is completely associated with by experiments that manipulate the neural process. If the neural process is the one, there will be corresponding changes in the quale when there are changes in the neural process.
  3. Every event of a quale (such as a dynamic visual quale of a movie, a dynamic thinking quale of a situation, or a dynamic emotion quale of alternating happiness, sadness, and indifference) will always be found to be associated with an event in a certain neural process (such as an event in a neural process in the occipital cortex, in the frontal lobe, or in the amygdala, which can be investigated by EEG, ECoG, MEG, fMRI, etc.) – it will never be found to occur without a corresponding event in a certain neural process.
  4. For a pair of a quale and a neural process in 2., the predictions that are valid for the neural process in any event or experiment that affects the neural process in any aspect that the quale is completely associated with the neural process, such as that the neural process will occur, change, or stop functioning, will be valid for the quale.

Theorem IV: A Quale is a Special Kind of Signaling Pattern  

Predictions

  1. A quale can be identified, quantified, or monitored by identifying, quantifying, or monitoring only its Special Signaling Pattern (SSP), respectively. These actions on the SSP are both necessary and sufficient for the corresponding actions on the quale to occur, and these actions on anything else without having the actions on the SSP will not result in the corresponding actions on the quale.
  2. A quale can be created, modified, tested, or destroyed by creating, modifying, testing, or destroying only its SSP, respectively. These actions on the SSP are both necessary and sufficient for the corresponding actions on the quale to occur, and these actions on anything else without having the actions on the SSP will not result in the corresponding actions on the quale. Experimentally, isolated actions on the SSP, without having actions on anything else, can be done by electrical stimulations, magnetic stimulations, and pharmacologic agents that have effects on only E/EC signal transmissions of the neural process (because the SSP is the pattern of E/EC signal transmissions among neurons of the neural process).
  3. In any event or experiment, all predictions that are valid for the SSP of the neural process of a quale, such as that the SSP will occur, change, or disappear, will be identically valid for the quale, that is, the changes that occur in the SSP and those that occur in the quale will be identical in all aspects (quality, quantity, temporal pattern, etc.). For example, if the SSP changes its pattern abruptly from being a signaling pattern of the static, faint, homogenous red color to being a signaling pattern of the dynamic, vivid, complex movie; the changes in the quale will be identical in all aspects, such as identical changes from homogeneous color to complex movie (quality), from faint to vivid (quantity), and abruptly from static to dynamic (temporal pattern).
  4. It will be found that neural processes that have qualia have signaling patterns that are SSPs, which have categorically different characteristics from those of signaling patterns of neural processes that do not have qualia, and that signaling patterns of different kinds of qualia are significantly different from each other but have some principal features in common.

Theorem V: Consciousness is a Special Kind of Reentrant Signaling State 

Predictions

  1. Consciousness (conscious awareness and experiences) can be identified, quantified, monitored, created, modified, tested, or destroyed by performing the respective action on only the composite of all special reentrant signaling states. The actions on the composite are both necessary and sufficient for the corresponding actions on the consciousness to occur, and these actions on anything else without having the actions on the composite will not result in the corresponding actions on the consciousness.
  2. In any event or experiment, all predictions that are valid for the composite of all special reentrant signaling states, such as that the composite will occur, change, or disappear, will be identically valid for the consciousness, that is, the changes that occur in the composite and those that occur in the consciousness will be identical in all aspects (quality, quantity, temporal pattern, etc.). For example, if the composite of all special reentrant signaling states changes abruptly from the composite of special reentrant signaling states of vision, hearing, and thinking to the composite of special reentrant signaling state of only emotion, the changes in the consciousness will be identical in all aspects, such as identical changes from conscious awareness and experiences of vision, hearing, and thinking to those of only emotion (quality), from the composite of three signaling states to the composite of one signaling state (quantity), and abruptly (temporal pattern).
  3. Regarding the consciousness neural process, it will be found that the consciousness neural process has connections to all neural processes that have qualia, that it has its signals fed back to itself, and that it has the signaling pattern that is special signaling pattern when it functions to be consciously aware of and experience something.

Theorem VIa: Identical Neural Processes have Identical Mental Processes and Identical Qualia

Theorem VIb: Similar Neural Processes have Similar Mental Processes and Similar Qualia

Predictions

  1. Craniopagus twins who share certain perception neural processes and can access the shared neural process of the other twin will find that the quale (of some object) that occurs in his/her personal neural process is similar to the quale (of the same object) that occurs in the other twin’s neural process that he/she can access provided that their neural processes for that perception are similar.
  2. If, in the future, there is a way to connect neural processes of different persons together so that one person’s consciousness neural process can access and read the signaling pattern of a perception neural process (such as a visual perception neural process) of another person who is experiencing the same thing (such as looking at the same color), the first person will find that the quale that occurs in the second person’s perception neural process is similar to the quale that occurs in his/her perception neural process.
  3. Mind reading and thought identification by physical instruments will be able to be done by comparing the signaling patterns of neural processes of mental processes or qualia in question with those of the known ones.
  4. A transplanted neural tissue that results in a neural process that is similar to the previously-functioning neural process will yield a corresponding mental process (perception, motor, cognition, etc.) and a corresponding quale (visual, auditory, cutaneous sensation, etc.) that are similar to the previously-functioning mental process and the previously-functioning quale. Theoretically, neural transplantation for diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s dementia, cortical visual impairment, and cortical sensory impairment will work if they result in correctly functioning neural processes.

Theorem VII: Different neural processes have different mental processes and different qualia

Prediction

  1. If we make changes to a neural process, we will make changes to its mental process and quale too. Therefore, this theorem predicts that gene therapy to correct color blindness by converting one type of the existing photoreceptors to the missing type (such as converting green-sensitive cone cells to red-sensitive cone cells in people with red-color blindness) will be able to create a new color quale in the patient. This is because the color perception of any point in the visual field depends on the composite signals from the group of photoreceptors at the corresponding point in the retinal field and because the composite signals from the group of treated photo-receptors at any retinal point will be different from the composite signals from that group before the therapy (because a photoreceptor conversion will result in a novel type of photoreceptor that will respond to light with novel signaling patterns – different from those of the previously existing photoreceptors). This will result in a novel signaling pattern from the treated group of photoreceptors to the retinal ganglion cells and a new signaling pattern from the retinal ganglion cells through the optic nerve to the lateral geniculate nucleus and then to the occipital cortex. The color perception neural process will receive a new signaling pattern that it has never received before and, to represent the new color, will generate a novel signaling pattern, which is a new color quale. Consequently, the patient will experience a new color quale that he/she has never experienced before and thus will perceive the world in more colors and will be able to better differentiate things with more perceived colors. This kind of treatment has been done successfully in animals, such as squirrel monkeys and mice.

Theorem VIII: Identical mental processes and identical qualia require identical neural processes

Prediction

  1. If, in the future, identical mental processes and qualia can be identified by methods that are not dependent on neural processes, it will be found that identical mental processes and identical qualia indeed require identical neural processes. (Current methods that are dependent on neural processes in identifying identical mental processes and identical qualia cannot be used to identify the neural processes and confirm this theorem, because it will lead to a circular process of identification.)

Theorem IX: Different mental processes and different qualia require different neural processes

Prediction

  1. It will be found that neural processes for different mental processes and different qualia are different. This has already proved to be true in general cases, such as visual and auditory mental processes and qualia require different neural processes, which are visual and auditory neural processes. But the theory predicts in general that the perception of a certain object A without qualia occurring and the perception of that object A with qualia occurring require different neural processes.

 Theorem X: Mental Interactions are Physical Processes  

 Predictions 

  1.  Mental interactions can be created, identified, measured qualitatively and quantitatively, monitored, changed, or destroyed by performing the respective action to only their neural signal transmissions, which are physical processes. These actions on the neural signal transmissions are both necessary and sufficient for the corresponding actions on the mental interactions to occur, and these actions on anything else without having the actions on the neural signal transmissions will not result in the corresponding actions on the mental interactions.
  2. In any event or experiment, all predictions that are valid for the neural signal transmissions will be identically valid for the mental interactions that are associated with the neural signal transmissions, that is, the changes that occur in the neural signal transmissions and those that occur in the mental interactions will be identical in all aspects (quality, quantity, temporal pattern, etc.).

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