Aura: Epileptic aura

  • Foldvary-Schaefer N, Unnwongse K. Localizing and lateralizing features of auras and seizures. Epilepsy Behav. 2011 Feb;20(2):160-166.
  • Lee SK, Lee SY, Kim DW, Lee DS, Chung CK. Occipital lobe epilepsy: Clinical characteristics, surgical outcome, and role of diagnostic modalities. Epilepsia. 2005 May;46(5):688–695.
  • Panayiotopoulos CP. Visual phenomena and headache in occipital epilepsy: A review, a systematic study and differentiation from migraine. Epileptic Disord. 1999 Dec;1(4):205-216.
  • Perven G, So NK. Epileptic auras: Phenomenology and neurophysiology. Epileptic Disord 2015;1(4):349-362.
  • Salanova V, Andermann F, Rasmussen T, Olivier A, Quesney LF. Parietal lobe epilepsy. Clinical manifestations and outcome in 82 patients treated surgically between 1929 and 1988. Brain. 1995 Jun;118(Pt 3):607-627.
  • Williamson PD, Thadani VM, Darcey TM, Spencer DD, Spencer SS, Mattson RH. Occipital lobe epilepsy: Clinical characteristics, seizure spread patterns, and results of surgery. Ann Neurol. 1992 Jan;31(1):3-13.
  • Yang PF, Jia YZ, Lin Q, Mei Z, Chen ZQ, Zheng ZY, et al. Intractable occipital lobe epilepsy: Clinical characteristics, surgical treatment, and a systematic review of the literature. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2015 Jan;157(1):63-75.

Aura: Migraine aura

  • Cutrer FM, Huerter K. Migraine aura. Neurologist. 2007 May;13(3):118-125.
  • Dalkara T, Zervas NT, Moskowitz MA. From spreading depression to the trigeminovascular system. Neurol Sci. 2006 May;27 Suppl 2:S86-90.
  • DeLange JM, Cutrer FM. Our evolving understanding of migraine with aura. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2014 Oct;18(10):453.
  • Petrusic I, Zidverc-Trajkovic J. Cortical spreading depression: origins and paths as inferred from the sequence of events during migraine aura. Funct Neurol. 2014 Jul-Sep;29(3):207–212.
  • Shams PN, Plant GT. Migraine-like visual aura due to focal cerebral lesions: case series and review. Surv Ophthalmol. 2011 Mar-Apr;56(2):135-161.
  • Tfelt-Hansen PC. History of migraine with aura and cortical spreading depression from 1941 and onwards. Cephalalgia. 2010 Jul;30(7):780-792.
  • Vincent MB. Vision and migraine. Headache. 2015 Apr;55(4):595-599.
  • Welch KM. Contemporary concepts of migraine pathogenesis.Neurology. 2003 Oct;61(8 Suppl 4):S2-8.

Auditory perception

  • Bizley JK, Cohen YE. The what, where and how of auditory-object perception. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013 Oct;14(10):693–707.
  • Demanez JP, Demanez L. Anatomophysiology of the central auditory nervous system: basic concepts. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 2003;57(4):227-236.
  • Gray L. Chapter 12: Auditory system: Structure and function. Neuroscience Online. The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth). Retrieved 2017 Feb 13 from
  • Gray L. Chapter 13: Auditory system: Pathways and reflexes. Neuroscience Online. The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth). Retrieved 2017 Feb 13 from
  • Nelken I. Processing of complex sounds in the auditory system. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2008 Aug;18(4):413-417.
  • Pickles JO. Auditory pathways: Anatomy and physiology. Handb Clin Neurol. 2015;129:3-25.

Brain recording: Electrocorticography

Brain recording: Electroencephalography

  • Faigle R, Sutter R, Kaplan PW. The electroencephalography of encephalopathy in patients with endocrine and metabolic disorders. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2013 Oct;30(5):10.1097/WNP.0b013e3182a73db9.
  • Kaplan PW, Rossetti AO. EEG patterns and imaging correlations in encephalopathy: Encephalopathy part II. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2011 Jun;28(3):233-251.
  • Sutter R, Kaplan PW. Clinical and electroencephalographic correlates of acute encephalopathy. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2013 Oct;30(5):443-453.
  • Fisher RS, Scharfman HE, deCurtis M. How can we identify ictal and interictal abnormal activity? Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;813:3–23.
  • Mayville C, Fakhoury T, Abou-Khalil B. Absence Seizures with evolution into generalized tonic-clonic activity: Clinical and EEG features. Epilepsia. 2000;41(4):391-394.
  • Sha ZY, Henry TR. Seizures and epilepsy: Electrophysiological diagnosis. In: Henry TR, editor. Epilepsy Board Review Manual. 2012. Epilepsy. 2012;1(2):1-45. Retrieved 2017 Aug 20 from

Brain recording: Magnetoencephalography

  • Paetau R, Mohamed IS. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and other neurophysiological investigations. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;111:461-465.
  • Singh SP. Magnetoencephalography: Basic principles. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2014 Mar;17(Suppl 1):S107–S112.

Brain recording: Others

Brain stimulation: Electrical stimulation

  • Antal A, Paulus W, Nitsche MA. Electrical stimulation and visual network plasticity. Restorative neurologyand neuroscience. 2011 Nov;29:365–374. DOI: 10.3233/RNN-2011-0609.
  • Caruana F, Gozzo F, Pelliccia V, Cossu M, Avanzini P. Smile and laughter elicited by electrical stimulation of the frontal operculum. Neuropsychologia. 2016 Aug;89:364-370.
  • Clark KL Armstrong KM, Tirin Moore T. Probing neural circuitry and function with electrical microstimulation. Proc Biol Sci. 2011 Apr 22; 278(1709):1121–1130. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2010.2211. PMCID: PMC3049083.
  • Desmurget M, Sirigu A. Revealing humans’ sensorimotor functions with electrical cortical stimulation. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Sep 19; 370(1677): 20140207. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2014.0207. PMCID: PMC4528819 PMID: 26240422.
  • Lanteaume L, Khalfa S, Régis J, Marquis P, Chauvel P, Bartolomei F. Emotion induction after direct intracerebral stimulations of human amygdala. Cereb Cortex. 2007 Jun;17(6):1307-1313.
  • Meletti S, Tassi L, Mai R, Fini N, Tassinari CA, Russo GL. Emotions induced by intracerebral electrical stimulation of the temporal lobe. Epilepsia. 2006;47 Suppl 5:47-51.
  • Rauschecker AM, Dastjerdi M, Weiner KS, Witthoft N, Chen J, Selimbeyoglu A, et al. Illusions of visual motion elicited by electrical stimulation of human MT complex. PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e21798. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021798.
  • Chen KW, Berger CC, Manheimer E, Forde D, Magidson J, Dachman L, Lejuez CW. Meditative therapies for reducing anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Depress Anxiety. 2012 Jul;29(7):545-562.
  • Tavakoli AV, Yun K. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) mechanisms and protocols. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017;11:214.

Brain stimulation: Transcranial magnetic stimulation

  • Ališauskienė M, Truffert A, Vaičienė N, Magistris MR. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice. Medicina (Kaunas) 2005;41(10):813-826.
  • Dayan E, Censor N, Buch ER, Sandrini M, Cohen LG. Noninvasive brain stimulation: From physiology to network dynamics and back. Nat Neurosci. 2013 Jul;16(7):838–844.
  • Fried PJ, Elkin-Frankston S, Rushmore RJ, Hilgetag CC, Valero-Cabre A. Characterization of visual percepts evoked by noninvasive stimulation of the human posterior parietal cortex. Baker CI, editor. PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e27204. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027204. PMCID: PMC3210763.
  • Griškova I, Höppner J, Rukšėnas O, Dapšys K. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: The method and application. Medicina (Kaunas) 2006;42(10):798-804.
  • Hallett M. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain. Nature. 2000 Jul;406(6792):147-150.
  • Hallett M. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: A primer. Neuron. 2007 Jul;55(2):187-199.
  • Kammer T, Puls K, Strasburger H, Hill NJ, Wichmann FA. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the visual system. I. The psychophysics of visual suppression. Exp Brain Res. 2005 Jan;160(1):118-128.
  • Kammer T, Puls K, Erb M, Grodd W. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the visual system. II. Characterization of induced phosphenes and scotomas. Exp Brain Res. 2005 Jan;160(1):129-140.
  • Parkin BL, Ekhtiari H, Walsh VF. Non-invasive human brain stimulation in cognitive neuroscience: A primer. Neuron. 2015 Sep;87(5):932-945.
  • Silvanto J. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and vision. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;116:655-669.
  • Rees G. Neural correlates of the contents of visual awareness in humans. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2007 May 29;362(1481):877-886.


Consciousness in animals and plants

Innate behavior

Meditation and yoga

  • Chen KW, Berger CC, Manheimer E, Forde D, Magidson J, Dachman, et al. Meditative therapies for reducing anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Depress Anxiety. 2012 Jul;29(7):545-562.
  • Pascoe MC, Bauer IE. A systematic review of randomised control trials on the effects of yoga on stress measures and mood. J Psychiatr Res. 2015 Sep;68:270-282.
  • Pokorski M, Suchorzynska A. Psychobehavioral effects of meditation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1023:85-91.
  • Rao RM, Raghuram N, Nagendra HR, Kodaganur GS, Bilimagga RS, Shashidhara HP, et al. Effects of a yoga program on mood states, quality of life, and toxicity in breast cancer patients receiving conventional treatment: A randomized controlled trial. Indian J Palliat Care. 2017 Jul-Sep;23(3):237-246.
  • Singh N, Telles S. Neurophysiological effects of meditation based on evoked and event related potential recordings. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:406261.
  • Streeter CC, Whitfield TH, Owen L, Rein T, Karri SK, Yakhkind A, et al. Effects of yoga versus walking on mood, anxiety, and brain GABA levels: A randomized controlled MRS Study. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Nov;16(11):1145–1152.

Neural circuits and networks

Neural physiology and encoding

  • Pereda AE. Electrical synapses and their functional interactions with chemical synapses. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2014 Apr; 15(4): 250–263. doi: 10.1038/nrn3708. PMCID: PMC4091911 NIHMSID: NIHMS595691.
  • Recce M. Chapter 4. Encoding Information in Neuronal Activity. In: Maass W, Bishop CM, editors. Pulsed Neural Networks. A Bradford Book. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press; 2001.
  • Spruston N, Stuart G, Häusser M. Chapter 12. Principles of Dendritic Integration. In: Stuart G, Spruston N, Hausser M, editors. Dendrites book, 3rd edition. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press; 2016. ISBN-13: 978-0198745273 ISBN-10: 0198745273.

Neuronal plasticity

  • Bruel-Jungerman E, Davis S, Laroche S. Brain plasticity mechanisms and memory: A party of four. Neuroscientist. 2007 Oct;13(5):492-505.
  • Caroni P, Donato F, Muller D. Structural plasticity upon learning: Regulation and functions. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012 Jun;13(7):478-490.
  • De Roo M, Klauser P, Garcia PM, Poglia L, Muller D. Spine dynamics and synapse remodeling during LTP and memory processes. Prog Brain Res. 2008;169:199-207.
  • Hulme SR, Jones OD, Raymond CR, Sah P, Abraham WC. Mechanisms of heterosynaptic metaplasticity. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2014 Jan 5;369(1633):20130148.
  • Mockett BG, Hulme SR. Metaplasticity: New insights through electrophysiological investigations. J Integr Neurosci. 2008 Jun;7(2):315-336.
  • Nishiyama H. Learning-induced structural plasticity in the cerebellum. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2014;117:1-19.
  • Schmidt MV, Abraham WC, Maroun M, Stork O, Richter-Levin G. Stress-induced metaplasticity: From synapses to behavior. Neuroscience. 2013 Oct;250:112-120. D
  • Tononi G, Cirelli C. Sleep and the price of plasticity: From synaptic and cellular homeostasis to memory consolidation and integration. Neuron. 2014 Jan;81(1):12–34.
  • Yger P, Gilson M. Models of metaplasticity: A Review of concepts. Front Comput Neurosci. 2015;9:138.


Sleep-wake cycle

  • Benbadis SR, Rielo DA. Normal sleep EEG. Talavera F, Alvarez N, Lutsep LH, editors. Medscape. Updated 2017 Sep 8. Retrieved 2017 Dec 14 from
  • Ono D, Yamanaka A. Hypothalamic regulation of the sleep/wake cycle. Neurosci Res. 2017 May;118:74-81.
  • Roebuck A, Monasterio V, Gederi E, Osipov M, Behar J, Malhotra A, et al. A review of signals used in sleep analysis. Physiol Meas. 2014 Jan;5(1):R1–57.
  • Saper CB, Chou TC, Scammell TE. The sleep switch: Hypothalamic control of sleep and wakefulness. Trends Neurosci. 2001 Dec;24(12):726-731.
  • Schwartz MD, Kilduff TS. The neurobiology of sleep and wakefulness. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2015 Dec;38(4):615-644.
  • Schwartz JRL, Roth T. Neurophysiology of sleep and wakefulness: Basic science and clinical implications. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2008 Dec; 6(4): 367–378. doi: 10.2174/157015908787386050. PMCID: PMC2701283.
  • Yamashita T, Yamanaka A. Lateral hypothalamic circuits for sleep-wake control. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2017 Jun;44:94-100




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